This research explores the POS-tag sequences that shape the transition from upper intermediate (B2 CEFR) to near-native proficiency (C2 CEFR) in a corpus of essays (n=32,410) from the Cambridge Learner Corpus. Gilquin (2018) and others have shown that POS tag sequences offer a holistic approach to extracting the most commonly used patterns without a starting point of an a prioriset of words and word sequences. Using corpus linguistics informed by usage-based theories of language learning, this paper examines the frequency and distribution of 4-slot POS-tag sequences in L2 English writing, drawing on the taxonomy of pattern grammar (Francis et al. 1996, 1998; Hunston & Francis, 2000). Findings point to the presence of both core and emergent POS-tag sequences in learner language in the two proficiency levels analysed. These sequences point to the presence of dynamic language restructuring processes as learners become more proficient and re-evaluate their understanding of frequency and distribution in English. This paper shows evidence of how language competence increases with proficiency. The research offers new evidence to our understanding of the development of L2 writing in EFL contexts.
EXACT(cell_reference1, cell_reference2) The result is True for an exact match or False for no match.
FIND(find, within, start_number) where the first two arguments are required. The start_number argument is optional and allows you to specify with which character position to start the search.
REPLACE(current_text, start_number, number_characters, new_text) where each argument is required. Let’s look at the details for the arguments. Current_text: The cell reference(s) for the current text; Start_number: The first character’s numeric position in the current text; Number_characters: The number of characters you want to replace; New_text: The new text to replace the current text.
SUBSTITUTE function to change the actual text rather than using a character’s position (cell_reference, current_text, new_text, instances) where all arguments are required except for instances. You can use instances to specify which occurrence in the text string to change.
The Centre for English Language Proficiency (CELP) will host a five-day Doctoral Summer School on 3-7 July 2023. This will take place at the University of Malta’s Valletta Campus.
The Summer School offers PhD students in Applied Linguistics and TESOL the opportunity to further develop their research skills, fine-tune their projects, and learn about a range of contemporary key issues in the field. The Summer School will enable participants to engage in stimulating discussions, showcase their doctoral research, and network with other researchers operating within the global context of Applied Linguistics and TESOL. As part of the Summer School, students will have the opportunity to deliver a talk about their doctoral research as well as a poster presentation.
The workshops and seminars forming part of the Summer School will be facilitated by several international academics. These include Prof Lourdes Ortega (Georgetown University), Prof Sarah Mercer (University of Graz), Prof Pascual Pérez-Paredes (University of Murcia), and Prof Shelley Staples (University of Arizona), and Dr Geraldine Mark (Cardiff University). These academics will also be delivering talks on how they manage their research projects and deal with the challenges that arise in the process of doing empirical research.
An integral part of the Summer School consists of the one-on-one consultation sessions that students can sign up for with any of the above academics. These sessions will enable each student to discuss their doctoral research with someone who is highly experienced in doing research and supervising doctoral work.
Students are welcome from across the globe and it is anticipated that this will be a truly international exchange. In order for students to be eligible to attend the Summer School, they will need to be enrolled on a doctoral programme in Applied Linguistics and/or TESOL at a higher education institution. They will need to submit a 150-word statement of motivation explaining why they wish to take part in the Summer School and what they hope to gain from participating.
Some of the topics that the Summer School will focus on include:
• Identifying research issues in Applied Linguistics and TESOL; • Formulating and evaluating research questions; • Developing a theoretical framework; • Using mixed methods research; • Using innovative research methodologies; • Writing and publishing Applied Linguistics and TESOL research; • Presenting and networking at research conferences; • Building an academic profile as a researcher; • Bridging research and practice for multiple stakeholders; • Leveraging the impact of Applied Linguistics and TESOL research