Although many studies have explored the role of dictionaries in English language learning, few have investigated mobile dictionaries (MDs) from learners’ perspectives. This study aimed to explore Chinese EFL learners’ acceptance of three types of MDs: monolingual, bilingualised and bilingual. A total of 125 participants used mobile dictionaries in various English learning contexts, especially in reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. Adapted from the Technology Acceptance Model and the mobile technology evaluation framework, the questionnaire in this study addressed three key themes: (1) perceived ease of use, (2) perceived usefulness, and (3) behavioural intention to use.
Analysis shows that the bilingualised MD group reported the most positive perceptions, especially compared to the bilingual MD group. A total of 101 participants participated in semi-structured group interviews to further explore the reasons underlying their perceptions. Several factors impacting learner acceptance, from the micro to the macro level, are proposed and discussed. As an interdisciplinary study, this research fills theoretical and empirical gaps in investigating mobile-assisted language learning. It offers application designers and language teachers insights into learners’ acceptance of MDs. Moreover, it provides recommendations concerning making MDs more personalised, attractive and effective.
This research explores the POS-tag sequences that shape the transition from upper intermediate (B2 CEFR) to near-native proficiency (C2 CEFR) in a corpus of essays (n=32,410) from the Cambridge Learner Corpus. Gilquin (2018) and others have shown that POS tag sequences offer a holistic approach to extracting the most commonly used patterns without a starting point of an a prioriset of words and word sequences. Using corpus linguistics informed by usage-based theories of language learning, this paper examines the frequency and distribution of 4-slot POS-tag sequences in L2 English writing, drawing on the taxonomy of pattern grammar (Francis et al. 1996, 1998; Hunston & Francis, 2000). Findings point to the presence of both core and emergent POS-tag sequences in learner language in the two proficiency levels analysed. These sequences point to the presence of dynamic language restructuring processes as learners become more proficient and re-evaluate their understanding of frequency and distribution in English. This paper shows evidence of how language competence increases with proficiency. The research offers new evidence to our understanding of the development of L2 writing in EFL contexts.